What Is Hydatid
Editorial, February 15, 2010
also known as Hydatid
Disease, is a
potentially fatal parasitic disease caused
by tapeworm of the
both of which are being found in North America in increasing
regularity and increasing geographical areas.
Dr. Val Geist and Dr. Will Graves have written about
the dangers of
wolves and Hydatid Disease but
writings have been downplayed by some experts and agencies.
After reading numerous writings concerning
Hydatid Disease I felt compelled to provide these same materials to
the general public for consideration of what actions might
be taken to help prevent the spread of Hydatid Disease into
Washington or any other states.
Echinococcus granulosus and
can infect wild animals, pets, livestock, and humans.
The life cycle for these tapeworms
requires a "definitive host" such as wolves, foxes, or dogs and
an "intermediate host" deer, elk, domestic
livestock, rodents, or even humans. The adult tapeworms are
attached to the
intestines of the "definitive host" and lay hundreds of eggs which
are dispersed in feces by the host animal across the
countryside. Animals and rodents grazing where egg infested
feces are on the ground can unknowingly
ingest the eggs which hatch in the "intermediate host" intestine.
The hatched larvae penetrates the
intestinal wall, gets into the circulatory system, and migrates to
liver, lungs, heart, or even the brain, where the larvae
develops a protective cyst and begins growing. When an infected
"intermediate host" is consumed by a carnivore "definitive host" the cysts
from the organs of "intermediate host" develop into adult tapeworms in the intestines of the
new "definitive host" and the life cycle begins again.
indicates that 62% and 63% of the wolves tested in Idaho
and Montana respectively between 2006 and 2008 were infected with
While it is unknown if the transplanted Canadian wolves (a known
carrier) introduced the parasite, or if the parasite which was
previously undetected in Idaho and Montana was brought in by
migrating wolves, or if the parasite was present and
undiscovered in resident prey species. What is known is that
even though the USFWS claim they wormed all the imported wolves
before release, wolves in Idaho and Montana now have a high infection rate of
and some prey species such as deer, elk, and goat in Idaho and
Montana are also known to be
granulosus, so the complete
life cycle of
seems to be
occurring in Idaho and Montana.
This Raises An
Exactly How Can Humans, Pets, and Livestock Become Infected With
Livestock grazing in areas where wolves may have left egg
may become infected.
Anyone who lives, works, recreates, owns pets, and gathers food
from areas where Hydatid Disease exists in wild animal populations
bears a risk of infection.
trappers, taxidermists, veterinarians, wildlife
professionals, ranchers, farmers, and others who handle animals in
areas where wild animals are infected with these parasites bear
a higher risk of infection.
affects people all over the world, especially those who work and
live with animals. Humans can get infected by eating food or
drinking water which is contaminated. Adults or children can
become infected by handling animals without practicing a high
level of hygiene during and after contact. Hand to mouth
transmission can occur after handling an infected canine.
(Canines naturally lick their anus and then lick other parts of
their bodies, potentially spreading eggs onto their fur.)
This Raises Another
threat of Hydatid Disease at least until more is known about
these parasites and the impact Hydatid Disease could have in the
western United States?
Migrating Into Neighboring States From Idaho and Montana, Should
Wolf Colonization Into New Areas And Overall Wolf Numbers Be
Controlled To Prevent The Spread of
Echinococcus Granulosus and
Journal of Wildlife Disease:
Center For Disease Control:
Health Protection Agency:
Canadian Medical Association:
17 Cases Diagnosed
in Winnipeg, Manitoba:
42 Cases Diagnosed
in Edmonton, Alberta:
337 Cases in United
States & Canada:
Amerian College of
Wolves And The
Spread Of Disease:
Hydatid Disease In
Synopsis Hydatid Disease:
Hydatid Disease Prevention:
Perhaps citizens and
agencies should carefully consider the possible consequences of
According to information provided, the eggs of either parasite
would need to be ingested in some manner for an animal or human
to become infected. One difference is that foxes are common
definitive hosts of
in the Midwest
wolves are common definitive hosts of
in the Western states.
Consider this, if eggs of either parasite must be ingested to cause
infection, and if infected foxes have been proven to be spreading
disease to humans in the Midwest, then why would infected wolves not
have the potential to spread disease
to humans in Western states?
You can decide for yourself, but it appears that Dr. Geist’s
warnings about Hydatid Disease whether from
are definitely worthy of serious
consideration . If you live near
areas inhabited by infected wolves in the West or infected foxes in the Midwest,
you may want to practice precautionary measures to minimize your exposure
to these parasites until more specific details are known about
Wear plastic gloves whenever handling wild game,
Avoid exposure to infected feces, do not touch, kick, or disturb carnivore feces.
affects of livestock grazing on the ground in areas inhabited
by infected wolves or foxes.
4. Do not let
pets roam freely in areas known to be inhabited by infected
wolves or foxes.
Obtain and use
an effective dog wormer on dogs that may have been exposed
to wolf or fox feces.
6. Cook wild
game well before eating.
7. Do not
collect or eat wild fruits or vegetables picked directly from
8. Wild-picked foods should always be washed carefully or
cooked before eating.
9. Fence in
gardens to keep out wild animals and pets.
10. Do not allow pets to
eat wild animal or livestock offal.
11. Watch children do not
touch pets which could be infected, children put their hands in
12. Use caution allowing pets in your
home (any which could have had any chance of being infected).
Hopefully wildlife managers
will take measures to protect the public
safety and health
from the dangers of these
parasites, at least until more is known about the impact of
Hydatid Disease. It seems irresponsible to encourage
colonization of new areas by wolves which are known to come from
infected areas. It would seem that everything should be done to
prevent the spread of a known parasite that has historically
established itself in endemic proportions in other countries.
The Truth About
By Lynn M Stuter
February 9, 2010
There a secret, hiding in plain sight, that every American
should know about. Your life may depend on it.
In the mid-1990's, wolves were "re-introduced" to areas of the
West under the auspices of the United States Fish and Wildlife
Service in accordance with the "Endangered Species Act".
I will digress here for a moment and explain why quotes are used
around the word "re-introduced". The word re-introduced
means to bring back a species indigenous to the area from which
it has disappeared or is in danger of becoming extinct.
The wolf indigenous to most parts of the
West is called the Timber Wolf or Gray Wolf (canis
irremotus). The male
of these species, on average, is about 75 lbs; the female is
smaller as is usual with most species.
In hearing about wolves invading Idaho, which has the largest
contiguous wilderness area of any state in the lower 48, I kept
hearing stories about huge animals. One gent told me that a
wolf crossed the road in front of his pickup and stood as tall
as the hood. I rather discounted it as the proverbial "fish
story" where the fish gets bigger with each telling of the
story. What he was describing was one big animal considering
his pickup was a 4x4.
I would learn that he wasn't telling a
"fish story". The wolf brought in and turned loose in the
Yellowstone National Park and other parts of central Idaho is
Canadian Gray Wolf.
If this article is correct, the species of wolf imported is the
canis lupus occidentallis
or MacKenzie Valley Wolf, a large wolf from Western Canada. One
states that this wolf was imported from Alberta. In searching,
there is the
canis lupus columbianus,
a large wolf found in Yukon, British Columbia and Alberta.
canis lupus griseoalbus,
is a large wolf found in Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba.
Whether one or more of these species, what is obvious is that
they are not indigenous to the lower 48.
Males, on average, weigh 130 lbs, the females somewhat smaller.
These animals are huge, far outweighing any dog but the mastiff
breeds. Were they to stand on their hind legs, put their feet
on the shoulders of most people, they would be looking down at
Let me be perfectly clear; the
Canadian Gray Wolf
is not indigenous to the lower 48 states.
To claim they are a "re-introduction" is not only misleading but
That would not be the first or last problem with the
"re-introduction" of wolves.
dated October 3, 1993, Mr Will Graves of Maryland wrote a
letter to Ed Bangs, US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Project
Leader for the introduction of the Canadian Gray, in Helena,
MT. Graves, the
in Russia: Anxiety Through the Ages“,
has studied wolves for many years. He has traveled to Russia and
surrounding nations to gather information, historic documents,
etc., to learn more about wolves, their
and the impact these animals have had on humans for centuries.
This is the basis of his book." (source)
Graves' letter addressed the Draft Environmental Impact
Statement (DEIS) presented by Bangs. In his letter, Graves
expressed his concerns regarding introducing wolves to the
United States period,
"I support Alternative 3, the
No Wolf Alternative.
1. Diseases, Worms and Parasites. I was surprised that the
DEIS did not make a detailed study on the impact issue of
diseases, worms, and parasites (page 9). I believe an EIS
(Environmental Impact Statement) is not complete without a
detailed study covering the diseases, worms and parasites that
wolves would carry, harbor, and spread around in the YNP
(Yellowstone National Park) and in Idaho. The study should
cover the potential negative impact of these diseases on wild
and domestic animals, and on humans. I believe the potential
negative impact of these diseases is a valid reason not to
reintroduce wolves into YNP and to Idaho."
Mr Graves concerns, outlined in the
while very valid, were ignored, not only by Ed Bangs but also by
Everyone should read Will Graves' letter.
It is very important. And what it makes so very obvious is that
the American people have been lied to, if only by omission,
about the reality of the wolves introduced which
environmentalists would have you believe was a "re-introduction"
of an indigenous species.
What are the "diseases, worms and parasites" spoken of by
Graves? Besides hoof and mouth disease, anthrax of a less
virulent variety than the variety we are used to hearing about,
Neospora caninum which causes late-term abortions in
cattle, and an increased incidence of rabies, these wolves carry
a parasitic tapeworm.
When most of us envision a tapeworm, we think of the kind
carried by dogs and cats and for which pet owners worm them and
that are very visible in the scat. This parasite is not of that
There are two types of parasites, of the tapeworm family, that
cause Hydatid Disease:
which causes Cystic Hydatid Disease that we are dealing with, in
the sylvatic form, in the wolf population now.
Cystic hydatid disease grows large single cysts, unless there
is multiple infections, in which case there are several cysts.
Once cysts grow, they may burst in an active person, leading in
some cases to instant death. It is also lethal if the cyst is
growing in the brain. In some individuals, cysts calcify and are
carried by the person infected with minor medical problems. It
all depends where the cysts implant and how many there are.
Some claim the sylvatic form is benign. Dr Geist disagrees.
Alveolar Hydatid Disease. This
parasite is carried by rodents (especially mice) fed on by
wolves. This form has turned up in wolves in Europe. The
likelihood of wolves here carrying and transmitting the parasite
is probable as the disease has occurred in both Canada and
Alaska; it has also been diagnosed in patients from eastern
Montana to Ohio.
Alveolar hydatid disease forms many cysts that bud off more
cysts. Cysts follow lymphatic or blood pathways infecting other
parts of the body. It grows and buds like a cancer.
It kills about 70% of infected people in 5 years. Surgery
without spilling cyst content in the patient's body cavity is
very difficult to accomplish. Some success has been had
treating this form
Both forms of this disease are dangerous to humans.
has been found in
two-thirds of wolf carcasses
examined in Idaho. From the wolf, the parasite is spread to
other warm blooded animals, mostly through contact with dried
wolf scat in the wild.
Infection of ungulates (hoofed animals) is obviously through air
currents spreading the eggs to grass and surrounding vegetation
that ungulates eat. A dog, sniffing the dried scat of a wolf,
as dogs do with the scat of any animal, is sufficient to cause
the eggs to go airborne, infecting the dog's nostrils, mouth and
getting on the fur where they can be transmitted to anyone
handling or petting the dog.
Any warm-blooded animal, wild or domestic, large or small, is
susceptible as are humans.
How easy is it to contract the parasite
that causes the disease? If you listen to the USFWS field
Biologists and scientists
not on the government payroll, however, say otherwise. The
Centers for Disease Control
has issued a warning about the disease.
Dr Val Geist, Professional Biologist, Professor Emeritus of
Environmental Science, University of Calgary, in an e-mail to a
concerned citizen, had this to say,
It is well known that
domestic dogs play a very large risk factor in hydatid disease.
Unlike in Northern Canada or Alaska, in the West one is dealing
with much greater densities of people, dogs and carrier species
such as deer or elk. High incidents of the parasite in wolves
and coyotes and a high infestation rate with cysts in lungs and
liver of deer and elk, put at risk the ranching, farming and
rural communities. In winter time deer and elk will frequently
be found on ranches close to communities. Dogs from ranches,
farms and hamlets will have access to winter killed carcasses of
deer and elk as well as to offal left in the field during the
hunting season. Once infected with dog tape worm, the ranch and
house dogs will contaminate the yard, porches, living rooms etc
with hydatid eggs. There is no escape from this! Ten to twenty
years down the road, hydatid disease will raise its head, in
particular in persons who as toddlers crawled over floors walked
over by people and dogs carrying in hydatid eggs from the
outside. Please inform yourself what this is likely to mean in
terms of prognosis, suffering and costs!
What does Dr Geist suggest, in dealing with the probability of
coming in contact with infected animals?
"1.) Assuming the number of
wolf packs can be reduced so as to retain a vibrant, abundant
prey base, that developmental studies proceed on how to create
bait stations that are accepted by wolves, with bait containing
anti-helminthic drugs that are readily eaten by wolves. I am
aware that this will not be a quick project. Rather I expect
that wolves will accept bait stations, let alone the bait, only
very gradually. It will take time, experimentation and
sophisticated know how to make bait stations operational.
However, once accepted by wolves, the bait stations will break
the hydatid cycle between wolves and ungulates. Over time, this
will lead to diminished infections of deer and elk, and this
with re-infection with the parasite by wolves and coyotes.
2.) Unfortunately, under
moist and cold conditions hydatid eggs remain viable for months
and may even infect after three and a half years. Under dry, hot
conditions the eggs die quickly. Burning the under story in
forests will not eliminate the dangers from hydatid eggs, but
will certainly reduce such. It's a policy worth looking at.
3.) Simultaneously, a
thorough campaign must be initiated to regularly de-worm dogs in
danger areas as well as encourage specific hygienic measures.
Here it means winning the ears and the trust of the rural
What are anti-helminthic drugs? They are medications that rid
the animal of parasitic worms. Under this classification, there
are different types of drugs depending on the parasite.
Dr Geist closed his e-mail to the concerned citizen as follows:
"Wolves have been
exterminated from lived in landscapes universally because they,
or their diseases, posed a serious threat to affected people,
livestock and wild life. The lessons from history are that we
can at best live with wolves if such are relatively few, the
abundance of natural prey is high, and the risk from diseases
Was this disease in the lower 48 before the introduction of the
Canadian Gray Wolf? Previous to the introduction of this wolf,
the parasite was seldom found in the lower 48 among the coyote
and fox population.
That is no longer the case and the disease is now a threat,
especially if the people now subjected to the growing wolf
population and habitat are unaware of its presence, and
especially as there is no indication that anything is being done
to eradicate it.
Did the government know the concerns about diseases carried by
wolves before the Canadian Gray Wolf was introduced?
Considering the letter of Graves to Bangs in 1993, they
And quite obviously, in total disregard for the health and
well-being of the American people, the U.S. Government
introduced the wolf on behalf of radical environmental groups.
And the government wonders why people have trust issues.
Another problem is that these wolves are predators of a
different sort. As opposed to other predators like cougar and
bear that kill for food, the Canadian Gray Wolf kills
indiscriminately—they kill for sport; they kill because the
animal is there and convenient; they kill because they want to.
There is a website, on the internet, that
people who think these wolves are just harmless, nice little
puppy-dog-like creatures should visit. That website is
Right there, on the home page, is the picture of a man holding
the head of an elk after wolves brought her down and ripped the
fetus she carried from her body. She was then left to die and
died, obviously traumatized, in the man's arms.
On that website, you will see
picture after picture
of cow elk from which wolves ripped the
fetus and left the cow to die. The decimation of the ungulate
populations in Idaho is well under way. This is the reality of
to see how vast the wolf activity is in Idaho.
Also there, on the home page, is the
picture of the remains of a
Black Labrador Retriever.
The owner reached that dog within minutes of the wolf attack.
All that was left was the head and spine! How would you like to
find your beloved family pet like that? Would you want your
children to see that?
Wolves kill for sport, often bringing an animal down, mauling
it, ripping the gut open, then leaving the animal to die a slow,
torturous death. This picture (used with permission) is of one
such kill. That this animal died a slow death is apparent from
the blood pool around it; the animal slowly bled out. There are
animal carcasses, just like this one, spread all over the Idaho
Another known fact about wolves that the
pro-wolf advocates don't want people to know is that wolves do
not necessarily kill their prey before feeding on it! Here is a
picture of a deer,
still alive, her back quarters mangled beyond recovery, as the
wolf walks away. That deer obviously died as slow and as
torturous a death as the elk pictured here.
The Canadian Gray Wolf is driving the coyotes, foxes and native
wolf out of areas they take over for the simple reason that if
they remain, the Canadian Gray Wolf will kill them. The same is
true of the cougar, bobcat, lynx, wolverine, bear and other
predatory animal populations.
Timber Wolves, indigenous to the Pacific
Northwest, are now truly endangered; a fact which the pro-wolf
advocates are not concerned about, making it obvious that their
agenda has nothing to do with restoring an "endangered"
species. Pro-wolf advocates have made it clear that
implementing a radical environmental agenda is the sole goal of
their efforts; that "wolf recovery" has been a
from the start.
One rabid pro-wolf advocate filed a
freedom of information request on the Idaho Fish and Game
Department, to acquire the names of all who filled their legally
obtained, and paid for, wolf tag in 2009. That individual then
posted those names on a website that masked his identity. But,
being unable to contain his glee at having done this, he then
took out an ad in the
pointing people to the website where he listed the names. While
he claimed his actions were not intended to incite harassment,
he was also quoted as saying,
"They're paying for the privilege to use a resource that belongs
to all of us … They've made a conscious decision to do something
that other people in this state disapprove of."
But he didn't intend to incite harassment? Really?
Did this pro-wolf advocate request of the Idaho Fish and Game
Department to know who all had filled tags to legally hunt deer,
elk, moose and bear? After all, there might be those who
"disapprove" of hunting those, too; and aren't deer, elk, moose
and bear just as much (if not more) a "resource" as wolves?
This individual, who would have you believe he didn't do this to
incite harassment, did not, however, request that information.
Quite obviously, his agenda has nothing to do with conservation,
the eco-system, or the environment. If he did, he would care
about the decimation of Idaho ungulate populations by wolves.
Like Al Gore and his "global warming"
agenda based on pseudo-science, on which he has made millions,
the pro-wolf advocates have an agenda which is about
money and control,
just like global warming is.
I've heard a lot of people compare wolves to those nice little
neighborhood puppy dogs. The number of people who have been
attacked by wolves is growing. The number who have been killed
is also growing. In his letter to Bangs, Graves pointed out
that people in certain parts of Siberia do not venture outside
at night because, if they do, their odds of being attacked by a
wolf are substantial. Here is part of an e-mail from a
"I can tell you I have had
firsthand experience with these wolves in Washington, we have
had them looking in our house windows, they have killed deer
within a 100 yards of our house, I have shot at them to scare
them off and they turn and lope right at me going past me at 50
yards. These wolves are not afraid of people and they are huge.
We don’t go out at night to let the dogs pee without taking a
big flashlight and gun, I spend many nights at the barns
watching out for our stock when the wolves are in close to us.
One of the reasons that the wolf diseases will spread and be
easy to come in contact with will be that there is too high of a
population of wolves."
If a Canadian Gray Wolf can crush the rib
bones of a deer, just how safe do you truly believe you are if
you come face to face with this predator without the means to
defend yourself? If three wolves are not afraid to take on the
do you think they are afraid to take you on?
What chances do you have of surviving Hydatid Disease if
contracted? Do you really believe that, once it invades the
population, it will be given the same attention as, say, AIDs?
The bottom line here is that the American people have been, and
are being, lied to about the wolf and the introduction of it to
the lower 48 states. That they are being lied to is pretty good
indication that the real agenda is other than the one presented.
Get informed, get involved. Save our country for our people,
not the rabid, radical environmentalists who have a goal that
has nothing to do with freedom, liberty or justice but
everything to do with money and control.
Credit for much of the material used in
this article goes to
who has done a tremendous job of bringing a lot of information
together that tells a story counter to the one people are being
told by the government, the media, and the environmentalists.
Another excellent website is
Washington Wolf Information.
© 2010 Lynn M Stuter – All Rights Reserved.
Reprinted here by
permission of author.